Causes of Separation of East Pakistan:
East Pakistan was the right-wing of the federation of Pakistan. This wing separated from us in 1971 due to internal and external reasons. Thus, Pakistan was cut into two pieces. The causes of separation of East Pakistan are mentioned below:
- Ayub Khan’s Dictatorial Era:
Ten years dictatorial regime of Ayub Khan was imposed on Pakistan. “State of Emergency”, imposed permanently, gave protection to the bureaucracy. They adopted such policies of oppressing people as caused the reaction of the people internally. The people of East Pakistan could not afford this situation and were forced on separation.
- Lack of National Leadership:
Pakistan lacked the patriotic leadership after the death of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) and Liaquat AH Khan. The leader of Pakistan Muslim League though that it was only their right to rule the people. Due to this, the ministries of the Muslim League could not win the trust of the people. The leaders of the Muslim League could not understand the problems faced by the people because they were not in constant contact with the people. It caused the separation of East Pakistan.
- Poor Economic Condition:
East Pakistan suffered always poor economic conditions. Before the partition of India, Hindu industrialists and landlords were the cause of economic sufferings of West Bengal. This created a sense of deprivation amongst the local people that led to the separation of East Pakistan.
- Negative Role of Hindu Teachers:
After the establishment of Pakistan, the governments failed to inculcate and create the spirit of Pakistani nationalism. On the other hand, Pakistan’s opponent group succeeded in continuing their negative activities. Unfortunately, Bengali Muslims had always been backward in education than Hindus. They prepared them to rebel against the Ideology of Pakistan. It paved the way for getting separation from West Pakistan.
- Issue of Bengali Languages:
The issue of Bengali language played a vital role in disintegrating the national unit. Urdu was declared the national language of Pakistan after Pakistan came into existence. Bengalis launched a movement in favor of Bengal but because of the extraordinary influence of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) this movement was suppressed for the long time being. Bengal and Urdu were recognized as national languages in the constitution of 1956, but it could not obviate the charter of Bengalis.
- Provincial Prejudices:
The population of East Pakistan was 56 % of the total population of Pakistan. East Pakistan was one of the five units of Pakistan, but politicians of East Pakistan demanded their representation in the National Assembly according to the proportion of their population. The politicians of East Pakistan and West Pakistan stood against each other on this issue. It caused the partition of the country into two parts.
- Territorial Politics of the Politicians:
In 1954, the Muslim League lost Elections in East Pakistan. The arena of politics went into the hands of Suhrawardy, Bhashani and Fazl-ul-Haque who to snatch power from each other stated supporting Hindu members of the Assembly. They used negative tactics to combine people with them. Thus, these politicians practiced the policy of make and break to get the chair of power.
- Conspiracies of Big Powers:
India signed a 20-Year Treaty with Russia. This treaty combines the interests of India and Russia in Southeast Asia. India got equipment as well as technical support from Russia according to her wishes to launch some operation. America was also involved in these conspiracies. Anyway, the separation of East Pakistan was the secret agreement of big powers.
- Six-Points Formula of Sheikh Mujeeb-ur Rehman:
Six-Points Formula of Sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rehman proved fatal and last labour in the separation of East Pakistan. He wanted that provinces should be made separate states and semi-federation state should also be established. Sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rehman said to the economically downtrodden people. “Unless the slavery of West Pakistan comes to an end, you cannot prosper” He succeeded in his self-made drama of the independence.
- Bhutto- Mujeeb-ur-Rehman Differences:
Bhutto-Mujeebur Rehman differences escalated the issue of separation. Dialogues were held to remove the differences but all in vain. Mr. Bhutto boycotted the session of National Assembly to be held on 3 March 1971 at Dhaka. It increased distances between East and West Pakistan. It caused the separation.
- The success of Regional Parties:
No big political party could win. Elections in both provinces. Awami League of Sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rehman won the Elections in East Pakistan whereas Pakistan People’s Party succeeded in West Pakistan. National Awami Party (NAP) of Wali Khan and Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Islam (Hazvari Group) got successful in KPK and Balochistan. No party deserved to be called a national party that power was transferred to it. Awami League had won a clear majority but could not get power. This resulted in the separation.
- Military Action:
Sheikh Mujeebur Rehman announced revolt on 23rd March 1971. Even the flags of Bangladesh were hoisted and people belonging to West Pakistan and Bihari people were massacred. Keeping in view the circumstances, it was decided to launch military action. Major General Yaqub Ali Khan refused military action and resigned. Major General Yaqub Ali Khan refused military action and resigned. General Tikka Khan was appointed Governor East Pakistan. The action of Tikka Khan created further reaction against West Pakistan and Central Government further lost public support.
- The hijacking of Ganga Aeroplane:
India hijacked its Ganga aeroplane and sent it to Lahore. It pulls all the responsibility of this hijacking on Pakistan. Afterwards, India, pretending the hijacking, disconnected aerial communication with Pakistan. It was nothing but a conspiracy prepared for the separation of East Pakistan. After the aerial communication ended, the sending of armaments to East Pakistan stopped which made it impossible to launch military action on time.
- India’s Military Interference:
India had a constant wish to weaken the integrity of Pakistan for one reason or the other. She pretended the safety of her borders to invade thousands of terrorists of Mukti Bahni in East Pakistan and attacked East Pakistan. The Pakistan Army had to face defeat because there was no aerial protection. Pakistani soldiers had to surrender, and the country was partitioned.