SECTION-A (Marks 10)


Q1. Circle the correct option i.e A/B/C/D. Each part carries one mark.

(i)  A                      (ii)  C                   (iii)  B                 (iv)  D                 (v)  A

(vi) C                     (vii) A                  (viii) D                (ix)  B                 (x)  A


SECTION-B (Marks 24)


Q2. Answer briefly any eight of the following questions. 


(i) What do you mean by faith by Prophethood?

Ans: Faith in Prophet Hood means to believe that Allah sent messengers for the guidance of mankind. It is compulsory for a Muslim to have a staunch belief in Prophet hood without having any kind of doubt. This belief demands that the Holy Quran and the noble life of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) must be acknowledged as the source of guidance.


(ii) Write down the names of members of Cabinet Mission.

Ans: The Commission consisted of three Ministers

  1. Sir Stafford Cripps
  2. A.V. Alexander
  3. Lord Pethic Lawrence

Since all the members belonged to British cabinet, it was called cabinet Mission.


(iii) How did Quaid-e-Azam get the title of ‘Ambassador of Peace’?

Ans: Under Lucknow Pact, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) united both of the nations (The Hindus and the Muslims) in 1916. He got the right of separate electorates for the Muslims acknowledged and got the title of Ambassador of Peace.


(iv) Name three leaders of N.W.F.P (Khyber Pakhtun Khawa) Muslim League who took an active part for the success of referendum in 1947.

Ans: Leaders of the Muslim League, Sirdar Abdur Rab Nishtar, Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan, and Peer Manki toured the whole of the province and took an active part in the referendum in 1947.


(v) Give a brief account of the martyrdom of Tipu Sultan. 

Ans: Hyder Ali, the ruler of Myrose, a powerful Muslim state, resisted against the increasing force of the British manfully. After the death of Hyder Ali, his son Sultan Fateh Ali Khan Tipu continued Jihad against the British. The British formed an alliance with the Nizam of Hyderabad and Marhattas in 1799. And martyred Sultan Tipu in the Battle of Myrose. With the death of Sultan Tipu, not only Myrose was occupied by the British, but their authority began to expand other areas. Sultan Tipu was given proper burial ceremony by the company officials. He was an enlightened ruler treated his Hindu subjects with an open mind. He introduced new warfare technologies and new ways of agricultural production.


(vi) State any three causes of soil pollution.

Ans:  Soil Pollution:

Major causes of this pollution are as under:

  1. Releasing used water of houses and factories
  2. Spraying pesticides on crops and using chemical fertilizers
  3. Natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods etc
  4. Salinity and water logging
  5. Heaps of domestic and industrial wastage.

(vii) Into how many natural regions Pakistan is divided? Also give names. 

Ans: Pakistan is divided into four regions with reference to different land features.

The four regions are as follows:

  • The North and North-West Mountainous region]
  • The Upper Indus Plain
  • The Coastal Area of Lower Indus Valley
  • The Plateau of Balochistan

(viii) Enumerate any six threats to wildlife in Pakistan.  


  1. On less high mountain slopes, monkeys, red fox, black deer, leopard, partridge, Chakor can be seen. Forests are in abundance in Pothwar Plateau, Salt Range and Kala Chitta Mountain. Numerous wild animals are found in these forests. They include Goat Antelope, Chinkara deer, partridge, pea-cock, Chakor and other local birds.
  2. The plain areas of Pakistan are used for agricultural purposes. That’s why forests and wild life found on plains are getting shrunk. Jackals, hyenas, mongoose and wolves are found in these areas even today.
  3. Chinkara Deer and peacocks are found in desert areas.
  4. Dry and barren mountains of Balochistan are habitations of Markhor, wild sheep, partridge, Chakor and various kinds of wild cats.
  5. Among hunting birds, falcon, hawk and Kestrel are commonly found in Pakistan. Other than these birds, many seasonal birds migrate from Siberia and other cold areas to the lakes of Pakistan. When the winter is over, these birds return to their original areas. Markhor is the national animal of Pakistan whereas Chakor is the national bird of Pakistan.
  6. Allah Almighty has blessed Pakistan with a variety of wildlife.

(ix) Define Economic Development.

Ans: The growth of an economy from backward to advanced economy is known as Economic Development. It is a process through which such changes are introduced in economy by adopting and utilizing modern, advanced, capital and human resources as increase the income of the country. The living standard of the people rises. The masses enjoy better opportunities of education, health, employment and recreation.


(x) When and who administered the oath of Governor General from Quaid-e-Azam? 

Ans: On 15 August 1947, when Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was sworn in as the first Governor-General of Pakistan, Chief Justice Sir Rashid administered the oath of office to him.


(xi) Which important airfields of India were destroyed by Pakistan Air Force during 1965 war?

Ans: On the evening of the same day, the PAF responded with preemptive attacks on Indian airfields at Pathankot, Adampur and Halwara. The attack on Pathankot was a great success, as the IAF lost almost ten aircraft on the ground at Pathankot, while the attacks on Adampur and Halwara were failures.

SECTION-C (Marks 16)


Note: Attempt any TWO questions. All questions contain equal marks.


Q3. Explain Two Nation Theory by evaluating the thoughts of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Allama Muhammad Iqbal. 

Ans: Two-Nation Theory: Origin, Evolution and Explication:

             In the Sub-continent, every individual who embraced Islam associated himself, socially and politically, to the Muslim society and State. Thus, he would break all the previous relationships and link himself to a new social system. On these bases, with the passage of time, a separate and unique temperament of the Muslims of India formed. It was entirely different from that of the other Indian nations. This identity formed the basis of Two-Nation Theory.

In the perspective of the Sub-continent, Two-Nation Theory means that two major nations, the Muslims and the Hindus, were settled there. The Two nations were entirely different from each other in their religious ideas, the way of living and collective thinking. Their basic principles and the way of living are so different that despite living together for centuries, they could not intermingle with each other. The Indian Muslims fought the war of freedom on the basis of Two-Nation Theory and after accepting this theory as a historical fact two separate states. Pakistan and India came into existence. This Theory is the basis of Ideology of Pakistan.

So far as the evolution of Two-Nation Theory is concerned we will evaluate some personalities and their thoughts. These personalities belong to different periods.

Two-Nation Theory and Sir Syed Ahmad Khan:

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was the first person who used the term “Two-Nation Theory” due to Hindi Urdu Controversy in Banaras in 1867. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan declared the Muslims a separate nation. He convinced the government that there are at least two nations settled in the Sub-continent. One of them is Muslims and the other is Hindus.

The Muslims are a separate nation in every respect because their civilization, culture language, customs and philosophy of life are different from those of Hindus. This theory infused a political spirit among the Muslims and provided them with such a leadership which gave a new spirit and push to the freedom movement. India was partitioned because of Two-Nation Theory.

Two-Nation Theory and Allama Muhammad Iqbal (Rahmatullah)

Dr Allama Muhammad Iqbal (Rahmatullah) presented the idea of a separate state for the Muslims. He said

“The Muslims would not allow that their religious, political and social rights are usurped. Therefore, I would like to see the Punjab, NWFP (KPK), Sindh and Balochistan put together into a single state.”

Two-Nation Theory and Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah)

                Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) was a firm advocate of Two-Nation Theory. He gave the Muslims the status of a separate nation in every respect. He said: “Musalmans are a nation according to any definition of nation, and they must have their homeland, their territory and their State.” Pakistan Resolution was passed on 23rd of March 1940. In his Presidential Address Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) said:

The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literatures. It would be better for the British Government to announce the partition of the Sub-continent by keeping in view the interest of the two nations. It would be a right step religiously as well as historically.


Q4. Describe the significance of forests. Also give any six reasons for shortage of forests in Pakistan. 

Ans:   Significance of Forests:

  1. The Northern mountain areas receive much rain. This rain water, from mountains, comes down the slopes with great speed and falls into the rivers. The trees on slopes check the speedy flow of water. They help in preventing soil erosion and reduce the velocity of water.
  2. Pakistan has limited energy resources. The wood obtained from the forests makes up the deficiency of coal. It is used for fuel.
  3. Forests provide different kinds of wood which are used in building and making of furniture and other things.
  4. Sports good are manufactured of forest wood. Pakistan export these sports goods and earns foreign exchange.
  5. Forests make the climate of an area pleasant. They reduce the intensity of temperature.
  6. Forests are also a source of rain. They increase the quantity of water vapors in the air that cause rain-fall.
  7. If there are no forests, rivers wash away with them a huge quantity of sand and soil. They may fill the dams and artificial lakes. As a result, the storage capacity of water in dams and artificial lakes is decreased and less quantity of water is available for agriculture and industry.
  8. Trees are very useful in water-logged and salinity affected areas. The roots of the trees absorb water from the soil. They decrease the underground level of water. As a result, water level goes down.
  9. Herbs are found in forests. They are used in the preparation of medicines.
  10. Forests promote tourism. There are many places in the north and north-western mountain areas of Pakistan which are worth-seeing and tourist resort places.
  11. Forests are very necessary for wild life (birds and animals)
  12. Forests provide us with different kinds of fruit and seeds. They also provide fodder for animals.
  13. Forests play a key role in the economy of Pakistan.
  14. Forests are the source of Lacquer and silk cocoon industry. They also provide us with mushrooms, honey and gum.
  15. Raw material of paper and card board industry is obtained from trees.

The government of Pakistan has taken many steps to increase the area of forests. Department of Forestry is trying hard in this connection. Nurseries are established in all the big cities. Plants are available from these nurseries at reasonable prices.

Shortage of forests in Pakistan:

There is not much greenery and forests found in Pakistan due to many reasons. Few of them are mentioned below.

  1. Excessive cutting of trees
  2. Increase in wood timber needs due to increase in population.
  3. Increase in salinity and water logging
  4. Diseases of trees
  5. Decrease in rain-fall
  6. Breaking out of fires in forests
  7. Environmental pollution
  8. Shortage in river water


Q5. Elaborate important points of Objectives Resolution. 

Ans:  Pakistan Objectives Resolution 1949:

           On March 12, 1949, the Constituent Assembly adopted a resolution moved by Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. It was called the “Objectives Resolution”. This resolution occupied prime importance in the formulation of the constitution. The main points of this resolution are as under:

  1. Sovereignty:

The Sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to Allah Almighty and the authority. He has delegated to the state of Pakistan, through its people for being exercised within the limitation prescribed by him is a sacred trust.

  1. Islamic Legislation:

The constitution of Pakistan shall be formulated in the light of Quran and Sunnah and no legislation will be done repugnant to the teachings of Islam.

  1. Islamic Values:

The principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice as enunciated by Islam shall be fully observed.

  1. Islamic Way of Life:

The Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Quran and the Sunnah.

  1. Federal Government:

The territories now included in or in accession with Pakistan and such other territories as may hereafter be included in or accede to Pakistan shall form a Federation wherein the units will be autonomous with such boundaries and limitations on their powers and authority as may be prescribed.

  1. Fundamental Rights:

There shall be guaranteed fundamental rights including equality of status, of opportunity and before law, social, economic and political justice, and freedom of thought, expression, belief, worship and association, subject to the law and public morality.

  1. Development of Backward Areas:

Adequate provisions shall be made to safeguard the legitimate interests of minorities and backward and depressed classes.

  1. Protection of Minorities:

Adequate provision shall be made for the minorities to profess and practice their religions and develop their cultures.

  1. Independence of Judiciary:

The independence of the judiciary shall be fully secured.

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