Table of Contents
Q1. Four possible options are given for each statement. Mark (✓) on the correct option.
- The Objectives Resolution was passed in:
- 1949 ✓
- What percentage was the population of East Pakistan of the total population of Pakistan?
- 56 ✓
- Six points Formula was presented by
- Mujeeb-ur-Rehman ✓
- Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
- Yahya Khan
- East Pakistan emerged as an independent state on the map of the world in
- 1971 ✓
- General Muhammad Yahya Khan, the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan announced a Legal Framework Order (LFO) to hold General Elections in 1970. According to LFO, the number of National Assembly seats was
- 313 ✓
- Which language was declared the national language after the establishment of Pakistan?
- Urdu ✓
- Which party won the majority seats in West Pakistan in the General Election of 1970?
- Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Islam (Hazarvi Group)
- Pakistan People Party ✓
- Awami League
- General Muhammad Yahya Khan took over the Government on
- March 1969 ✓
- April 1970
- December 1971
- June 1972
- President General Muhammad Ayub Khan introduced Land Reforms in
- 1959 ✓
- The duration of the 2nd Five Year Plan is
- 1960-1965 ✓
- Indus Water Treaty was brokered by
- Trusteeship Council
- Security Council
- The International Court
- The World Bank ✓
- The Constitution of 1956 remained enforced for a period of
- 2 Years 3 Months
- 2 Years 5 Months
- 2 Years 7 Months ✓
- 2 Years 9 Months
- The growth of an economy from backwards to an advanced economy is known as
- Economic development ✓
- Balance of payments
- With the efforts of the United Nations, a ceasefire took place in the war of 1965 on
- 12th September 1965
- 15th September 1965
- 20th September 1965
- 23rd September 1965 ✓
- The total number of the members of Basic Democracies was
- 60 thousand
- 70 thousand
- 80 thousand ✓
- 90 thousand
|i. D||ii. B||iii. A||iv. C||v. B|
|vi. D||vii. C||viii. A||ix. B||x. C|
|xi. D||xii. C||xiii. C||xiv. D||xv. C|
Q2. Match Column A with Column B.
|Column A||Column B|
|The death of Liaquat Ali Khan||1951|
|The Objectives Resolution||1949|
|Second Constitution of Pakistan||1962|
|End of One Unit in West Pakistan||1970|
|Ayub Khan’s Martial Law||1958|
|Column A||Column B|
|The death of Liaquat Ali khan||1951|
|The Objectives Resolution||1949|
|Second Constitution of Pakistan||1962|
|End of One Unit in West Pakistan||1970|
|Ayub Khan’s Martial Law||1958|
Q3. Fill in the blanks.
- Moulvi Tameez-ud-Din was the _______of the first Constitution Assembly of Pakistan. (Speaker)
- Because of unjust division by Radcliff, India succeeded in getting land access to __________. (state of Jammu and Kashmir)
- Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Rahmatullah) conducted the first Educational Conference conducted in the year _________. (1947)
- Liaquat Ali Khan got the Objectives Resolution passed from the Assembly in the year ________. (1949)
- The first constitution of Pakistan was implemented in the country in _______. (23rd March 1956)
- General Ayub Khan promulgated Muslim Family Laws Ordinance in (1961)
- President Ayub Khan introduced a new system of ________ in 1959. (basic democratic)
- In 1960, ________ treaty was signed between India and Pakistan. (Indus Water)
- Liaquat Nehru Pact was made in _____________. (1950)
- Liaquat Ali Khan joined Pakistan Muslim League in the year __________. (1923)
Q4. Write short answers.
How was the first constitution Assembly formed?
Ans: First Constitution Assembly:
When the day of freedom was approaching near, the Constituent Assembly elected Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) as President on August 11, 1947. Chief Justice Sir Abdur Rashid took oath from Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah). Originally, the Constituent Assembly consisted of 69 members. Afterwards, this number was increased to 79.
Moulvi Tameez-ud-Din was appointed as the first speaker of the Assembly. A provisional constitution was adopted with some modifications in the Indian Act of 1935 until the new constitution was introduced. According to this constitution, the Federal System was launched in the country. Under provisional Constitution, the Constituent Assembly that also had the role of Central Parliament was summoned for its first session.
Describe any five points of the Land Reforms introduced by Ayub Khan.
Ans: Land Reforms:
For Land Reforms, Ayub Khan set up a Commission in 1959. This land Reforms Commission was headed by Akhtar Hussain, Governor of West Pakistan. In the light of recommendations made by this Commission. Land Reforms were announced. The main points of these reforms are given below:
- No person was to own more than 500 acres of irrigated or 1000 acres of non-irrigated land. In case of gardens or meadows, the landlord was given the right to own 150 acres more land.
- The landlords were given the right to transfer their excess land to the women of their families and orphan children. However, the transferred land would not exceed the limit of 250 acres of irrigated and 500 acres of non-irrigated land.
- Present landlords would hand over the excess land to the Government. The landlords would be compensated for their snatched lands within 25 years in instalments.
- To increase the rate of Ijarah (share of the landlord) was also banned.
- The Jagirs were confiscated without any compensation. However, the Jagirs endowed/dedicated to educational, religious or charitable institutions were exempted.
- On the recommendation of the Land Commission, steps were taken to consolidate the fragmented smallholdings. According to a statement of Ayub Khan, about nine million acres of land were consolidated.
Write five Islamic Provisions of the Constitution of 1956.
Ans: Islamic Provisions of the Constitution of 1956:
- According to the Constitution, the name of the country was adopted as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
- It was declared that the President of the country shall be Muslim.
- The Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres by the teachings and requirements of Islam.
- No law would be passed or promulgated against the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah.
- Usury, sale of alcohol and narcotics and prostitution shall be banned and were prohibited.
- Pakistan shall be made a welfare state.
What were the targets of the 2nd Five Year Development Plan?
Ans: The Second Five Year Plan (1960-65):
With the termination of the First Plan Period (1955-60), the Second Five Year Plan was prepared. Following were the main objectives and targets of this Plan.
- To attain an increase in national income by 24 per cent.
- To achieve an increase of about 10 per cent in per capita income.
- To provide opportunities for employment to 2.5 million people.
- To get an increase of 14 per cent in agricultural output.
- To increase industrial production up to 14 per cent in large scale as well as medium scale industries
- To increase the industrial production of Cottage and small-scale industries up to 25 per cent.
- To increase exports at the rate of 3 per cent annual increase.
What was the role of the Pakistan Navy in the war of 1965?
Ans: Role of Pakistan Navy in the war of 1965:
Pakistan navy remained fully alert during this war. Our Navy destroyed famous Indian Naval Base Dwarka, on the coast of Kathiawar and did a heroic achievement. When India launched a sudden attack on a unit of Pakistan Navy, and Indian ship was sunk by Pakistan Navy in this fight while other ships retreated.
Write any five points of Muslim Family Laws Ordinance.
Ans: Muslim Family Laws Ordinance 1961:
The then President Ayub Khan promulgated Muslim Family Laws ordinance 1961. According to this Ordinance:
- All Muslim marriages were to be compulsorily registered in Union Councils.
- Unwanted polygamy was abolished; consent of the current wife and permission by Chairman, Union Council was made mandatory for a second marriage.
- The minimum age limit for marriage was fixed; 18 years for boy and 16 years for a girl.
- In case of divorce etc 90 days was fixed as Iddat Period.
- Orphaned grand-children may receive a share from the property of their grandparents.
- The increasing population of Pakistan shall be controlled through Family Planning.
Describe two causes of the war in 1965.
Ans: Two causes of the war in 1965.
- Pakistan was established against the wishes of Hindus, so they never accepted Pakistan from the bottom of their hearts. Wonderful progress and stability of Pakistan constituted a major concern for them. So, they started launching aggressive actions against Pakistan.
- The Kashmir conflict is the real cause of War 1965. India occupied Kashmir against the will of the Kashmiri people. Kashmiri people are in favour of accession to Pakistan, but India has always avoided holding the promised plebiscite in Kashmir by the resolution passed by the Security Council. As a punishment for supporting Kashmiri people morally and raising Kashmir issue all over the world. India imposed war on Pakistan in 1965. Pakistan extended moral support to the people of Kashmir and raised the Kashmir issue all over the world not like which India did.
What are the points for the future policies described in the Legal Framework Order?
Ans: Points for the future Policies described in the Legal Framework Order:
The following points were decided for the future strategy
- Promotion of the Islamic way of living
- To practice the moral teachings of Islam
- To take steps to promote Islamic principles in the country
- To make arrangements to provide the education of Quran and Islamiyat to the Muslims
What is meant by the Union Council and Union Committee?
Ans: Union Council & Union Committee:
The lowest tier of Basic Democracies was composed of union councils. It was called Union Council for rural areas and the Union Committee for urban areas. 1000 to 1500 voters elected one member directly. He or she was called B.D Member. They were responsible for sanitation, arrangements of street lights and Passengers’ Houses (Musafirkhana) keeping death and birth records etc.
How was the Constitution of 1956 abrogated?
Ans: Abrogation of Constitution 1956:
The constitution of 1956 was passed after long and untiring efforts of nine years but did not last for long/proved to be short-lived due to specific circumstances of Pakistan which included mutual difference and quarrels of the politicians, unfair interruption of Army and bureaucracy in democratic institutions, lack of able leadership and high handedness of Governor-General in the affair of the Government. The Constitution of 1956 remained implemented for 2 years and 7 months only. In October 1958, the then Commander in Chief of Pakistan Army General Muhammad Ayub Khan dismissed the Government and set up a military regime in the country. He assumed/ concentrated all the powers in his own hands. He abrogated the Constitution of 1956. He dissolved all the Assemblies (National Assembly as well as Provincial Assemblies). He took over the charge of the offices of President and Chief Martial Law Administrator.
What is meant by Single Citizenship?
Ans: Single Citizenship:
The citizens of Pakistan shall have only single citizenship. All the citizens shall be called Pakistanis. In America, the people enjoy dual citizenship i.e. one citizenship of Central Government the other of Governments of the states whereas, in Pakistan, the Constitution established the principle of single citizenship.
Which areas of Muslim majority, India got as a result of unjust division by Radcliffe?
Ans: Radcliffe unjustly deprived Pakistan of some important areas. Three of the Tehsils of Gurdaspur District i.e. Gurdaspur, Pathankot and Batala: Zira, the Tehsil of Ferozepur and some other areas comprised of an overwhelming majority of the population of the Muslims were handed over to India.
How as the Malakand Division formed?
Ans: Malakand Division:
In N.W.F.P (KPK), Dir, Swat and Chitral maintained their identity as independent states even after the establishment of Pakistan. The people of these areas were not enjoying such facilities as the people in West Pakistan were enjoying. So, General Yahya Khan abolished the separate status of these states in 1969. These three states were merged to form Malakand Division. It was made an administrative part of N.W.F.P. (KPK).
What do you mean by Economic Development?
Ans: Economic Development:
The growth of an economy from backwards to an advanced economy is known as Economic Development. It is a process through which such changes are introduced in the economy by adopting and utilizing modern, advanced, capital and human resources as increase the income of the country. The living standard of the people rises. The masses enjoy better opportunities for education, health, employment and recreation.
Mention five targets of the 3rd Five Year Development Plan.
Ans: Third Five Year Development Plan (1965-70)
The main objectives and targets of the Third Five Year Plan were as under:
- To enhance the pace of national development and to increase the gross domestic product (GDP) as much as 37%.
- To increase per capita income at the rate of 20 %
- To provide employment to 5.5 million people
- To accelerate the pace of agricultural growth and to increase it at the rate of 5% annually.
- To increase the industrial growth at the rate of 13% annually
- To prefer the establishment of basic industries.
Write the answers in detail
Q5. Describe the early problems of Pakistan.
Ans: Early Problems of Pakistan
- Unjust Division of Radcliffe:
According to the plan of June 3rd, 1947, it was decided that the Punjab and Bengal will be divided into Muslim and Non-Muslim majority areas. Muslim majority areas would become part of Pakistan whereas the remaining areas would be included in India. It was agreed that a boundary commission should be constituted and its arbitration should be abided by the parties. Sir Radcliffe, an English law expert, was assigned this responsibility. The agreed map according to the population and the line drawn on it was altered. Radcliffe unjustly deprived Pakistan of some important areas. Three of the Tehsils of Gurdaspur District i.e. Gurdaspur, Pathankot and Batala: Zira, the Tehsil of Ferozepur and some other areas comprised of an overwhelming majority of the population of the Muslims were handed over to India. India was granted access to the state of Jammu and Kashmir through the inclusion of Gurdaspur in India. Sir Radcliffe not only deprived the Muslims of their areas and rights but also created the problem of Kashmir issue, he planted a seed of enmity between the two nations that are still a bone of contention between the two countries.
- Rehabilitation of Refugees:
After the establishment of Pakistan, the Muslims living in India decided to come into their new homeland as they found their lives unsafe there. Millions of families journeyed towards Pakistan leaving of all their belongings in India. These homeless, ruined, miserable and distressed Muslims were accommodated temporarily in refugee camps. The Government of Pakistan made accelerated planning to provide them with food, homes, medicines and other necessities. The local people welcomed their Muslim brother with open arm. The world has not seen such a large scale of migration anywhere else.
- Administrative Problems:
The Non-Muslim Government officials previously working in the areas of Pakistan shifted to India in a large number. The offices were vacated. There was an acute shortage of the items of furniture, stationery and typewriters. Most of the offices started their function in the open air. While going to India, the Hindus destroyed official record. It caused enormous difficulties in office work.
- Distribution of Assets:
The Indian rules did injustice in the proportional distribution of the assets too. They continued to avoid giving Pakistan its due share. They used every possible device to destroy the economy of Pakistan. They withheld agreed share of Pakistan’s assets. At the time of partition, Rupees four hundred billion were deposited in “Reserve Bank” of United India. This amount was to be divided between both countries. The proportional share of Pakistan was Rs 750 million. India was not prepared to give Pakistan her due share. India issued an amount of Rs 700 million. The remaining amount of Rs 50 million is still to be paid by India. A meeting between the representatives of both countries was held in November 1947. An agreement was made. Both the countries confirmed the agreement but it has not been implemented so far.
- Division of Army:
After the Sub-continent was partitioned, it was also necessary to divide military assets proportionally, but justice was not done in this division too. India wanted to weaken Pakistan so that it was forced to be a part of India. Before the partition, the Commander of United India did not like armed forces be divided. He wanted to keep all the forces under a single command. The Muslim League did not agree to his stand-point and insisted on the division of military resources and assets between the two countries.
The British Government had to accept this demand. It was decided that army assets between the two countries be divided in the proportion of 64% to India and 36% to Pakistan. The ordnance factories running in United India, not a single one was set up in the areas included in Pakistan. After a long discussion, it was decided that Pakistan be given Rs 60 million to set up an ordnance factory of her own. Each formula developed for the distribution of general military assets was rejected by the Indian Government. This made the conditions even worse and more complex. In this way, Pakistan was deprived of its due share.
- The River Water Issue:
The partition of the Sub-continent affected the natural flow of the rivers. According to international law, the natural channel of the river is maintained and two or more than two countries through which a river flows can benefit its waters. No country has the right to divert the natural flow of the river to deprive some other country of water resources. A crisis arose in the Sub-continent regarding this issue. Punjab and Sindh are irrigated by the River Indus and its tributaries i.e. Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas. When Punjab was divided into two parts, rivers were also divided. Ravi, Sutlej and Beas pass through India before they enter Pakistan. India stopped the water channel coming to West Punjab in 1948. It was the step to destroy the economy of the Punjab and Sindh because rivers are a clear-source of irrigation in these areas.
- Issue of States:
During the British rule, there were 635 princely states in India. When the time of freedom approached near, the people started to think about the future of these states. In the Cabinet Mission Plan, the rulers of these states were asked to participate in the constitution-making process for their future status as well as the protection of their interests. The rulers were also advised to keep in mind the choice of their people and religious affiliations. The British Government announced the termination of its control over India and Indian states on 20 February, 1947. It increased the feelings of distrust towards India.
Q6. Elaborate important points of Objectives Resolution.
Ans: Pakistan Objectives Resolution 1949:
On March 12, 1949, the Constituent Assembly adopted a resolution moved by Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. It was called the “Objectives Resolution”. This resolution occupied prime importance in the formulation of the constitution. The main points of this resolution are as under:
The Sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to Allah Almighty and the authority. He has delegated to the state of Pakistan, through its people for being exercised within the limitation prescribed by him is a sacred trust.
- Islamic Legislation:
The constitution of Pakistan shall be formulated in the light of Quran and Sunnah and no legislation will be done repugnant to the teachings of Islam.
- Islamic Values:
The principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice as enunciated by Islam shall be fully observed.
- Islamic Way of Life:
The Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres by the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Quran and the Sunnah.
- Federal Government:
The territories now included in or in accession with Pakistan and such other territories as may hereafter be included in or accede to Pakistan shall form a Federation wherein the units will be autonomous with such boundaries and limitations on their powers and authority as may be prescribed.
- Fundamental Rights:
There shall be guaranteed fundamental rights including equality of status, of opportunity and before law, social, economic and political justice, and freedom of thought, expression, belief, worship and association, subject to the law and public morality.
- Development of Backward Areas:
Adequate provisions shall be made to safeguard the legitimate interests of minorities and backward and depressed classes.
- Protection of Minorities:
Adequate provision shall be made for the minorities to profess and practice their religions and develop their cultures.
- Independence of Judiciary:
The independence of the judiciary shall be fully secured.
Q7. Write salient features of the Constitution of 1962.
Ans: Salient Features of Constitution of 1962:
In February, 1960 Ayub Khan constituted a ten members Constitution Commission for the formulation of constitution. Former Chief Justice, Shahb-ud-Din, chaired this Commission. It submitted its recommendations to the then President of Pakistan on May 6, 1961. Afterwards, the President constituted a Constitution Committee headed by then Foreign Minister, Manzoor Qadir. This Committee consisted of seven cabinet members. The Committee ignored the recommendations made by the Commission and complied constitutional recommendations of its own choice which were approved in the Conference of Governors. Thus, the Constitution was completed through a Presidential Order; the then-president Muhammad Ayub Khan promulgated this constitution in the country on June 8, 1962.
The Salient features of this Constitution are given below:
- Written Constitution:
The Constitution of 1962 was a written document. It consisted of 250 articles, five schedules, eight amendments and 31 Martial Law Regulations. It was divided into 12 Parts.
- Federal Constitution:
According to the Constitution of 1962, Pakistan was a federation with two provinces. Both the provinces i.e. East Pakistan and West Pakistan were given equal representation in the National Assembly. Both the provinces had an equal number of representatives in the Electoral College 40, 000 each. The powers of the Central Government were explained in the Constitution. The remaining powers were transferred to the provinces.
- Presidential Constitution:
Under this Constitution, the Presidential form of Government came into being. President was the head of the state as well as the head of the Government. He was to be elected by an electoral college consisting of 80, 000 members of Basic Democracies for a tenure of five years. All the executive powers rested with the President. All the appointments against key-posts were made by the President.
- Rigid Constitution:
Under this constitution, a two-third majority of the parliaments could amend the Constitution but the authentication by the President was compulsory to make this amendment valid.
- Unicameral Legislature:
Like the constitution of 1956, the unicameral legislature was introduced in the Constitution of 1962. It was named as the National Assembly to be elected by an electoral college through indirect elections for five years. Both the provinces had equal representation in it.
- Single Citizenship:
Like the constitution of 1956, the Constitution of 1962 enforced the principle of single citizenship in Pakistan. All the citizens of Pakistan were neither the citizens of East Pakistan or West Pakistan. Rather they were the citizens of Pakistan.
- Fundamental Rights:
Fundamental Rights were mentioned in the constitution and these rights were guaranteed. No law could be made in violation of the rights laid down in the constitution. No department of the Government could take any step against these rights. Some most important of these were: freedom of speech and expression; freedom of association and protection of life and property.
- Islamic Provisions:
The Objective Resolution was included as a preamble to the constitution. It was explained in this Resolution that the Sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to Allah Almighty and the authority. He has delegated to the state of Pakistan, through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by him is a sacred trust. First, the name of the country was adopted as “Republic of Pakistan”. TV word ‘Islamic’ was dropped in the Constitution. No, the law shall be enacted which is repugnant to the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Quran and Sunnah.
- Islamic Advisory Council:
An “Advisory Council of Islamic Ideology” shall be appointed to advise the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Provincial Governors, National and Provincial Assemblies in the legal affairs so that legislation could be possible By the principles and concepts of Islam and to examine all laws in force to bring them into conformity with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in Quran and Sunnah. Practically “Advisory Council of Islamic Ideology” was a powerless institution. The Council was only an advisory body and its advice was not binding on the President or Parliament.
- National Languages:
Both Urdu and Bengali were recognized as the national languages of Pakistan and English was declared as the official language of the country until the national languages achieve the official status.
- Indirect Democracy:
The system of Direct Elections was replaced by the method of Indirect Elections. This system was named Basic Democracies. Direct Method of Election was dissolved. The President was elected by an Electoral College comprising 80,000 Basic Democrats, equally distributed between the two provinces. The President, National Assembly and Provincial Assemblies were elected by an Electoral College comprising 80,000 Basic Democrats, equally distributed between the two provinces. They were elected by the people.
Q8. Describe the causes of the separation of East Pakistan.
Ans: Causes of Separation of East Pakistan:
East Pakistan was the right-wing of the federation of Pakistan. This wing separated from us in 1971 due to internal and external reasons. Thus, Pakistan was cut into two pieces. The causes of separation of East Pakistan are mentioned below:
- Ayub Khan’s Dictatorial Era:
Ten years dictatorial regime of Ayub Khan was imposed on Pakistan. “State of Emergency”, imposed permanently, gave protection to the bureaucracy. They adopted such policies of oppressing people as caused the reaction of the people internally. The people of East Pakistan could not afford this situation and were forced on separation.
- Lack of National Leadership:
Pakistan lacked the patriotic leadership after the death of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) and Liaquat AH Khan. The leader of Pakistan Muslim League though that it was only their right to rule the people. Due to this, the ministries of the Muslim League could not win the trust of the people. The leaders of the Muslim League could not understand the problems faced by the people because they were not in constant contact with the people. It caused the separation of East Pakistan.
- Poor Economic Condition:
East Pakistan suffered always poor economic conditions. Before the partition of India, Hindu industrialists and landlords were the cause of economic sufferings of West Bengal. This created a sense of deprivation amongst the local people that led to the separation of East Pakistan.
- Negative Role of Hindu Teachers:
After the establishment of Pakistan, the governments failed to inculcate and create the spirit of Pakistani nationalism. On the other hand, Pakistan’s opponent group succeeded in continuing their negative activities. Unfortunately, Bengali Muslims had always been backward in education than Hindus. They prepared them to rebel against the Ideology of Pakistan. It paved the way for getting separation from West Pakistan.
- Issue of Bengali Languages:
The issue of Bengali language played a vital role in disintegrating the national unit. Urdu was declared the national language of Pakistan after Pakistan came into existence. Bengalis launched a movement in favour of Bengal but because of the extraordinary influence of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) this movement was suppressed for the long time being. Bengal and Urdu were recognized as national languages in the constitution of 1956 but it could not obviate the charter of Bengalis.
- Provincial Prejudices:
The population of East Pakistan was 56 % of the total population of Pakistan. East Pakistan was one of the five units of Pakistan but politicians of East Pakistan demanded their representation in the National Assembly according to the proportion of their population. The politicians of East Pakistan and West Pakistan stood against each other on this issue. It caused the partition of the country into two parts.
- Territorial Politics of the Politicians:
In 1954, the Muslim League lost Elections in East Pakistan. The arena of politics went into the hands of Suhrawardy, Bhashani and Fazl-ul-Haque who to snatch power from each other stated supporting Hindu members of the Assembly. They used negative tactics to combine people with them. Thus, these politicians practised the policy of make and break to get the chair of power.
- Conspiracies of Big Powers:
India signed a 20-Year Treaty with Russia. This treaty combines the interests of India and Russia in South East Asia. India got equipment as well as technical support from Russia according to her wishes to launch some operation. America was also involved in these conspiracies. Anyway, the separation of East Pakistan was the secret agreement of big powers.
- Six-Points Formula of Sheikh Mujeeb-ur Rehman:
Six-Points Formula of Sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rehman proved fatal and last labour in the separation of East Pakistan. He wanted that provinces should be made separate states and semi-federation state should also be established. Sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rehman said to the economically downtrodden people. “Unless the slavery of West Pakistan comes to an end, you cannot prosper” He succeeded in his self-made drama of the independence.
- Bhutto- Mujeeb-ur-Rehman Differences:
Bhutto-Mujeebur Rehman differences escalated the issue of separation. Dialogues were held to remove the differences but all in vain. Mr. Bhutto boycotted the session of National Assembly to be held on 3 March, 1971 at Dhaka. It increased distances between East and West Pakistan. It caused the separation.
- The success of Regional Parties:
No big political party could win. Elections in both of the provinces. Awami League of Sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rehman won the Elections in East Pakistan whereas Pakistan People’s Party succeeded in West Pakistan. National Awami Party (NAP) of Wali Khan and Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Islam (Hazvari Group) got successful in KPK and Balochistan. No party deserved to be called a national party that power was transferred to it. Awami League had won a clear majority but could not get power. This resulted in the separation.
- Military Action:
Sheikh Mujeebur Rehman announced revolt on 23rd March, 1971. Even the flags of Bangladesh were hoisted and people belonging to West Pakistan and Bihari people were massacred. Keeping in view the circumstances, it was decided to launch military action. Major General Yaqub Ali Khan refused military action and resigned. Major General Yaqub Ali Khan refused military action and resigned. General Tikka Khan was appointed Governor East Pakistan. The action of Tikka Khan created further reaction against West Pakistan and Central Government further lost public support.
- The hijacking of Ganga Aeroplane:
India hijacked its Ganga aeroplane and sent it to Lahore. It pulls all the responsibility of this hijacking on Pakistan. Afterwards, India, pretending the hijacking, disconnected aerial communication with Pakistan. It was nothing but a conspiracy prepared for the separation of East Pakistan. After the aerial communication ended, the sending of armaments to East Pakistan stopped which made it impossible to launch military action on time.
- India’s Military Interference:
India had a constant wish to weaken the integrity of Pakistan for one reason or the other. She pretended the safety of her borders to invade thousands of terrorists of Mukti Bahni in East Pakistan and attacked East Pakistan. The Pakistan Army had to face defeat because there was no aerial protection. Pakistani soldiers had to surrender and the country was partitioned.
Q9. Explain salient features of Legal Framework Order
Ans: Legal Framework Oder (LFO) 1970
General Muhammad Yahya Khan, the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan announced a Legal Framework Order to hold General Elections in 1970. The salient features of this LFO are as under:
- The National Assembly would be elected for a tenure of five years. It would be composed of 300 seats.
- The minimum age for the election to Assembly and voter would be 25 years for men and 21 years for women respectively.
- 5th October 1970 and 22nd October 1970 were fixed for the elections of National Assembly and Provincial Assemblies respectively.
- Federal system of Government would be introduced in the country and the citizens would enjoy all fundamental rights.
- According to the constitution, the powers would be distributed and provincial autonomy would be fully protected.
- The Independence and freedom of judiciary would be fully honoured. The judiciary would safely guard the fundamental rights of the people. The decisions of the court would be binding on Centre as well as provinces.
- Islamic Ideology would be practised and only a Muslim could become the Head of the State (President).
- The National Assembly would decide all the issues with simple majority vote and quorum would consist of 100 members. Ne legal action would be taken against members of the assemblies on anything expressed in the assemblies.
- Pakistan would be a democratic country and the complete name of the country would be the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. National security would be protected and no such thing will be allowed as could cause damage to national security.
- The following points were decided for the future strategy:
- Promotion of Islamic ways of Living
- To practice the moral teachings of Islam
- To take steps to promote Islamic principles in the country.
- To make the arrangements to provide the education of Quran and Islamiyat to the Muslims.
Q10. Narrate events of the Indo-Pak War 1965.
Ans: Events of the Indo-Pak War 1965:
When war broke out, the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan declared a state of emergency on the radio. Addressing to the nation, he said “The people of Pakistan shall not feel comfortable until the mourns of the Indian’s cannons are made quiet permanently. Indian rulers don’t know which brave nation they have challenged. Our chivalrous soldiers are advancing to defeat the enemy. The Armed Forces of Pakistan shall Counterblast enemy.” He encouraged the nation and said, “Advance manfully and attack the enemy fiercely. May Allah Almighty support and protect you.” Events of the war are narrated briefly in the following lines.
India launched a three-sided attack (from Wagha, Burki and Kasur) on Lahore with the dawn of 6th September 1965. The daring soldiers of Pakistan not only repelled the Indian advancement but also didn’t let the enemy cross B.R. B Canal. On this very front, Major Aziz Bhatti continued resisting Indian advancement for several days. At last, he was blessed with martyrdom. The Government of Pakistan awarded him with Nishan-e-Haider on his gallantry.
India tried to occupy Lahore from the Kasur side but this attack was instantly retaliated by Pakistani Tigers. The next day, brave soldiers of Pakistan launched a counterattack and occupied Khem Karan, an Indian territory. Afterwards, India opened a new font of Head Suleman. Here, it had to meet with a humiliating defeat.
After having been defeated at Lahore and Kasur Sectors, India attacked Chavinda, and area in Sialkot with the help of tanks and Armored Division. It was the biggest ground attack after World War II. India intended to seize the key Grand Trunk Road near Sialkot and to disconnect Lahore from other cities but the brave Pakistani soldier, facing an enemy many times bigger than their strength, performed such heroic deeds as astonished and stunned the defence exports of the world. Chavinda Sector turned into a graveyard of Indian tanks.
After facing defeat in every sector, India nervously extended the scope of the War up to Rajasthan and advanced In order the occupy Hyderabad but Pakistan Army with the collaboration of Hur Mujahidin unnerved the enemy and occupied many of the Indian posts one after another.
Indian Pilots were outclassed by the Falcon like Pakistani Pilots in the initial days of the War. Eagle Like Pakistani pilots attained superiority over Indian Pilots in the war. Pakistan Air Force inflicted serious blows to the enemy and broke the backbone of Indian Air Force by hitting their targets with pinpoint accuracy at important airfields of Pathankot, Jodhpur, Adampur, Halwara, Jam Nagar, Jammu and Sri Nagar. During these airstrikes, it destroyed dozens of India planes. India launched many airstrikes to hit the Pak Airbase of Sargodha but failed in its every attempt. Squadron Leader Muhammad Mahmood Alam (M.M Alam) set a new world record by shooting down five Indian planes at Lahore in just one battle.
Pakistan navy remained fully alert during this war. Our Navy destroyed famous Indian Navel Base Dwarka, on the coast of Kathiawar and did a heroic achievement. When India launched a sudden attack on a unit of Pakistan Navy, an Indian ship was sunk by Pakistan Navy in this fight while other ships retreated.
With the efforts of the United Nations, a ceasefire took place on the dawn of September 23rd, 1965.
Effects of War:
- Pakistan- got international fame and it elevated its dignity.
- Kashmir Issue was once again highlighted.
- Pakistan learned that America and Europeans had two face characters
- The way China stood by Pakistan in this critical time helped Pakistan differentiating between friend and foe.
Unity and Solidarity among Pakistani People:
- This war even changed the altitude of politician and opposition leaders. They offered their unconditional and full support to Ayub Khan.
- This war instilled a spirit of unity and solidarity among Pakistani people. The entire nation disregarded their internal differences and stood firmly to fight the enemy.
- From a street person to a high official and from a labour worker to the businessman, every single person cooperated with Government and contributed in Defense Fund generously.
- The people donated blood for their brother who was fighting against the enemy. They also offered their services to the Pakistan Army at every front.
- Pakistani artists, through their art, encouraged their soldiers. In short, the entire nation faced the enemy courageously and stood victorious in the war.
Q11. Explain the role of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) as the first Governor-General of Pakistan.
Ans: Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) Role as First Governor-General of Pakistan:
- Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) worked as Governor-General of Pakistan for 13 months. He died on 11th September 1948. During this short period, he used his penetrating insight and leadership abilities and resolved important national issues that helped Pakistan stand on its feet.
- The lofty personality of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) solved the problems created after the birth of Pakistan excellently. Congress tried to create every type of problems for Pakistan including unequal division of assets, the problem of rehabilitation of refugees and inhuman treatment they received from the Hindus and the Sikhs, and non-communication of administrative records on time.
- Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) well-judged the seriousness of the circumstances and made Karachi the capital of Pakistan promptly.
- Advised government officials to do their duty with honestly and faithfulness.
- He arranged to operate special trains to shift officers from India to Pakistan.
- He agreed with an Air Company which made the shifting of government officials possible.
- He constituted a committee under the chairmanship of Chaudhary Muhammad Ali to improve the administrative structure.
- He launched civil services and made Pakistan Civil Services Academy
- He also started Accounts and Foreign Service
- The General Headquarters was made to improve the Armed Forces
- Ordnance factory was also set up in the short period of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) Governor Generalship.
- Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) not only paid much attention to internal affairs but also left no stone unturned to formulate foreign policy. He established good relations with neighbours as well as other major countries which were included in the fundamental objectives of our foreign policy.
- Pakistan got the membership of the United Nations. It was due to the statesmanship of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah)
- After the establishment of Pakistan, our country was facing many challenges. It was necessary to achieve success in the fields of education. Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) paid special attention to this issue. He conducted the first Educational Conference in 1947. He declared the education of science and technology compulsory for young students.
- Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) served Pakistan till he breathed his last. Despite his broken health, he would study important files.
- Although the incurable and fatal disease of tuberculosis had weakened him physically, yet his determination to serve Pakistan was not weakened. He did not let his disease come in the way of his duties. It would not be an exaggeration to say that Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) served Pakistan at the cost of his life.
Q12. Describe different steps of Basic Democracies System.
Ans: Basic Democracies System 1959:
In 1959, the then Presidential introduced a new system of Basic Democracies. According to this system, the people were to elect the member of Basic Democracies. Under the 196 constitution, these members formed an electoral college to elect the President, the National Assembly, and the Provincial Assemblies. The Basic Democracies system set up five tiers of institutions. They were as under:
- Union Council & Union Committee
- Tehsil (sub-district) Council and Thana Council
- District Council
- Divisional Council
- Provincial Advisory Council (PAC)
- Union Council & Union Committee:
The lowest tier of Basic Democracies was composed of union councils. It was called Union Council for rural areas and the Union Committee for urban areas. 1000 to 1500 voters elected one member directly. He or she was called B.D Member. They were responsible for sanitation, arrangements of street lights and Passengers’ Houses (Musafirkhana), keeping death and birth records etc.
Besides Union Councils and Union Committees, Qasba Committees – and Towns Committees were set up in towns having a population of 30,000 to 50,000 while Municipal Corporations were set up in the cities having a population more than 50,000. Cantonment Boards were set up in cantonment areas for development projects.
- Tehsil (sub-district) Council and Thana Council:
The second tier was known as Tehsil Council in the West Pakistan and Thana Council in East Pakistan. Its chairman was called Divisional Officer. Tehsil Council comprised of officials, nominated members and elected public representatives. Their duties included preparation of educational and economic projects in their respective areas.
- District Council:
On the district level, District Council was set up. It was chaired by the Deputy Commissioner. 50 percent of the members of District Council consisted of nominated official and non-official members while 50 percent members were elected representatives. The district councils were assigned duties such as the construction of roads, establishment of schools, sanitary arrangements, the establishment of hospitals, measures to prevent diseases, water supply schemes and development of cooperative societies etc.
- Divisional Advisory Council:
This Council was set up at the divisional level. It was headed by the Deputy Commissioner. All the Union Councils, Union Committees and Town Committees of the district were given representation in it. This Council was also composed of both official and nominated members. The duties assigned to this Council included monitoring of different departments in the division and preparation of proposals for various welfare activities.
- Provincial Advisory Council (PAC):
Provincial Advisory Council (PAC) was composed of representatives of all the divisions. It was directly under the Governor. This Council performed the functions of monitoring all the institutions of Basic Democracies in the province and coordinating their activities. The Governor was responsible to send the report of his performance directly to the President.
Q13. Elaborate on the role of Liaquat Ali Khan as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan.
Ans: Liaquat Ali Khan’s Role as First Prime Minister of Pakistan:
Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan was born at Karnal, a town in the East Punjab, in 1896. He did his graduation from MAO College, Aligarh and got the degree in law from Oxford University. He joined the All India Muslim League in 1936. He was the most trusted Lieutenant of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) till his death. On August 15, 1947, he became the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. He was assassinated on October 16, 1951, while addressing a public meeting at Rawalpindi.
- To stop the bloodbath of the Muslims in Punjab, Liaquat Ali Khan as first Prime Minister of Pakistan toured the border areas with Pandit Nehru and appealed to refrain from the hateful activity of human bloodshed.
- The refugees were pouring into Punjab in a large number and it was not an easy task to accommodate them. On the directions of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) he as Chairman, Punjab Muhajir Council, monitored the work of rehabilitation of refugees and providing them with necessities of life.
- He helped and guided Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah), the nation and the Government in setting up an effective administrative system, restoration of economic life, preparation of the budget, Kashmir issue, controlling internal disruption and defence against Indian conspiracies. But the responsibility of implementing the decisions rested with him.
- When the nation was demoralized after the death of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) and the Indian leadership was always busy in hatching conspiracies against Pakistan, it was he who represented and led the nation. The nation gave him the title of “Quaid-e-Millat” in commemoration of his superb leadership skills.
- In the reign of Liaquat Ali Khan, an enormous struggle was launched for economic growth. The people were persuaded to use Pakistani Products. Machinery was imported from Japan for the development of the textile industry and Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation was set up.
- He got Objectives Resolution passed from Assembly in 1949 and constituted a “Basic Principles Committee” to draw the new constitution.
- He visited the United States of America in 1950 and through his speeches; he apprised American people and leaders of the background of the establishment of Pakistan. Thus, he was the first leader who played a vital role in introducing Pakistan to the United States of America.
- The foreign policy formulated by Liaquat Ali Khan had the fundamental principle of maintaining brotherly and friendly relations with Islamic countries. He supported steps taken by Dr. Muhammad Musaddique, the Prime Minister of Iran, to nationalize the oil. He condemned the aggression of western countries against Egypt and supported the freedom movement in Indonesia.
- After Pakistan was established, Hindu-Muslim riots were a routine In India due to severe enmity of Hindus against the Muslims. Liaquat Ali Khan thought it necessary to solve this problem at the government level. Therefore, in 1950 he visited India in this connection and signed Liaquat Nehru pact.
- When India army concentrated on the borders of Pakistan in the mid of 1951, uncertainty was created in the country. He toured country-wide to raise the morale of the nation and to make the people aware of this threat. He raised a fist in his speeches which made the people aware of this threat.